Thursday, 31 August 2017

TTL - Index and notes

There seem to be three common families of ICs that I regularly come across when building synths.
1. CMOS (digital)
2. Linear (mainly analog)
3. TTL (Digital)

Linear ICs are solid-state analog devices characterized by a theoretically infinite number of possible operating states. They operate over a continuous range of input levels. In contrast, digital ICs have a finite number of discrete input and output states.

I've already started a page on CMOS. You can see it here.
(I'll do a Linear page later)
TTL and CMOS contain digital devices such as logic gates, flip flops, counters, decoders, etc.
Linear ICs are mostly analog and you will see them in amps, oscillators, regulators, etc etc
TTL stands for Transistor-Transistor Logic. They are built from bipolar junction transistors and resistors.
The ICs are mostly 4 or 5 digits and usually start with a 74 or 54. (eg: 7400 or 5404).
They are less sensitive to static electricity (unlike CMOS),
 but have a narrow operational voltage range (5 to 5.25V).
Inputs should always go somewhere. That is not be left floating.

TTL ICs use much more current that CMOS but are faster.
TTL have a low input impedance in comparison to CMOS .

Common ICs
7400 - quad 2 input NAND  eg74HC00
7402 - quad 2 input NOR gate
7404 - Hex inverter
7408 - quad 2 input AND eg:74HC08
7410 - triple 3 input NAND
7411 - triple 3 input AND
7420 - dual 4-input NAND
7421 - Dual 4-input AND
7427 - triple 3 input NOR
7432 - quad 2-input OR
744002 - dual 4-input NOR
744075 - triple 3-input OR
747266 - quad 2-input XNOR
7486 - quad 2-input XOR


The history and identification of the TTL chip family
TTL was invented in 1961 by James L. Buie. The first commercial integrated-circuit TTL devices were manufactured by Sylvania in 1963. TTL became popular with electronic systems designers after Texas Instruments introduced the 5400 series of ICs, in 1964 and the later 7400 series in 1966.
The Texas Instruments 7400 family became an industry standard. Compatible parts were made by Motorola, AMD, Fairchild, Intel,and many other manufacturers around the world.

* 74xx - old original chips. Now obsolete
* 74Sxx - Higher speed Schottky. (1969). Also obsolete
* 74LSxx - Low power Schottky
* 74ASxx - Advanced Schottky (1985) 
* 74HCxx - High speed using CMOS circuitry
* 74HCT - High speed,low power using  CMOS circuitry. The devices are pin compatible with             existing devices such as the 74TTL, 74STTL,  4000 series and the 74LS family.
 * 74xx - that have other letters after the 74. These are usually modern, fast surface mount

TTL devices are usually packaged in dual in-line packages (DIPs), usually with 14 to 24 pins.
Today, many TTL-compatible devices are available in surface-mount packages, which are available in a wider array of types than through-hole packages.

Most manufacturers offer commercial and extended temperature ranges: for example Texas Instruments 7400 series parts are rated from 0 to 70 °C, and 5400 series devices over the military-specification temperature range of −55 to +125 °C.

Links
+ Ken Stone Digitally controlled oscillator
+ List of 7400 series ICs
+Transistor-Transistor Logic

 Please let me know if there are any mistakes or omissions.

Wednesday, 30 August 2017

Morocco - Casablanca

Some pics of the city of Casablanca , but mainly the mosque (Hassan II).










A post shared by jono (@dj_jondent) on

The video above was modified using a 3trins video synth.

The Hassan II mosque is the 13th largest in the world. I think it's minaret is the tallest at 210m


the mosque complex was designed by French architect Michel Pinseau, took six years to build and was completed in 1993. 







A team of over 6000 master craftspeople was assembled to work on the mosque, delicately carving intricate patterns and designs






For more travel postcards click here:

Wednesday, 23 August 2017

Giant Bono - NLC build notes.

This Eurorack module is related to two earlier Nonlinearcircuit modules I've built.
The Vactrol PiLL and the DelayNoMore.
The Vactrol Pill used the famous phase locked loop IC - the CMOS 4046
The delay, uses the PT2399 chip.

Andrew describes it as such:
"Mostly, as the name implies, this module will make a lot of crappy noise and is only controllable in the sense of how crappy it sounds".

Awesome  If you love noise & distortion like I do, this should be a cool module.

Andrew's build notes are here:
http://www.sdiy.org/pinky/data/giant%20B0N0%20build%20and%20BOM.pdf

The 4046 has a linear voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) and two different phase comparators (PC1 & PC2). They have a common signal-input amplifier and a common comparator input.

"The mixoutput (of the Giant Bono) is comprised of the PLL VCO signal and the delay chip’s main output. VCO output is the raw PLL VCO.
The PC1 (phase comparator) is a 0-6V square wave, usually at audio rates.
PC2 is a lot more sporadic and is best used as a burst generator."

--------
I'm building version 6 of the PCB
I think these have the earlier errors mentioned in the build notes fixed.
---------------

The virgin PCB & faceplate.

Hot Hot Hot....


I like to get the surface mount ICs on first. then the rest of the SMds

This is where the vactrol goes




K= cathode.
Marked with a white dot on the vactrol

Headers, caps, rest of the thru hole stuff.

 Jacks and knobs. All 100k B




Links
NLC Blog
NLC build notes

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
You can find more NLC builds here.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sunday, 20 August 2017

Divine CMOS - NLC - Build notes

Some build notes for the nonlinearcircuit divine CMOS.


I first encountered this circuit in 4U.  Its a great module.

Now I have the fortune to build this in Eurorack format and see how it works.
There are 2 CMOS chips. A CD4520 & a CD4070.
Both are surface mount.
The CD4520 is a CMOS Dual Binary Up-counter.
It consists of 2 identical 4 stage counters.


The CD4070 is a Quad 2-input Exclusive - OR gate (XOR)
You can also use in its place a 4011 (NAND), 4001(OR), 4071(0R) 4077(XNOR), 4081(AND).

The Divine CMOS is a divider & mixer. Can be used with both audio and CV/LFO inputs to either divide and mix up audio level harmonics or get interesting patterns to drive other modules.

Andrew's Build notes are here:
http://www.sdiy.org/pinky/data/DivineCMOS%20Euro%20Build%20notes.pdf

 The virgin PCBs & faceplate.

I don't have all the components yet .. on back order.

The S1JL rectifier is still on back order so I'm using replacements.
Mouser Part No: 583-FM4005-T for the recitfier.
The rectifier is polarized. The cathode end is marked with a band. 


This replacement is slightly too big for the PCB. so i had to solder it on its side.
The trannies are all 847s


I used a standard 3mm LED instead of a bipolar.





-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
You can find more NLC builds here.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Saturday, 19 August 2017

CMOS - useful chips for DIY Lunetta Synths

Over the past few years of building the odd Synth module I've come across the 4000 series of CMOS (Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor) chips time and again.
I am an analog addict but I must say that the digital 4000 series is very versatile.

In this post I'm mainly referring to the CMOS family CD4XXXX. They are typically four or five digits long but always start with a "4". There are many equivalent chips  in the 74CXXXX and 74HCXXX family but these are trickier to use as their power supply range is more restricted (2V to 6V). In comparison The CMOS 4XXXX has a much wider range (+3 to +15V).

It's hard to keep track of what each chip is capable of so I've decided to start a list.
I've added links to any NLC modules I've built that use CMOS logic.
(I've also added a few other CMOS chips that don't belong in the 4000 range, but are still useful)
I hope this list will help others in the DIY community as it grows over the coming years.


40106 - hex schmitt trigger inverters.
             This can make 6 square/pulse wave oscillators
40174 - (CD40174, 74LS174, HCF40174, HEF40174)
40193 - Binary Up/Down Counter
4001 -  Quad two-input NOR gate (four NOR gates), (NLC Bools)
                                                                                   (NLC Divine Cmos)
4006 -  shift register
4007 - (CD4007, HCF4007, HEF4007, MC14007...)
4009 -  Hex inverter (six NOT gates),
4011 -  (CD4011, HEF4011, HCF4011, MC14011...)
            Quad two-input NAND gate (four NAND gates), (NLC Bools)
                                                                                     (NLC Divine Cmos)
4013 -  Dual Flip-Flop (MXR Delay pedal), (Ibanez FL-303 flanger pedal), (MXR Chorus Pedal)
4015 -  shift register
4016 -  (74HC4016, CD4016, HCF4016, HEF4016,TC4016... ) analog bilateral switch
4017 - decade counter (Squid axon),
                                  (1050 mix sequencer)
                                  Baby 10 sequencer.(The 4017 has 10 decoded outputs)
4024 -  shift register- Seven stage ripple carry binary counter (Null A)
4029 -  4 stage counter-binary/decade (NLC 4SEQ) 
                                                        (NLC 32:1) 
                                                           (Null A)
4030 - Quad two-input XOR gate (four XOR gates), (NLC Bools)
                                                                                 (NLC Divine Cmos)
4040 -  divider/ripple counter/Binary counter
4042 -  Quad D-Latch
4046 -  (CD4046, 74HC4046, MC14046, HCF4046...)
            PLL (Phase Locked Loop), built in VCO,  (NLC Vactrol Pill),
                                                                             RingPull
                                                                             Giant Bono 
                                                                            Wagernumb
4051 -  (CD4051, 74HC4051, HCF4051...)
            Eight channel multiplexer
4052 -  (HEF4052, CD4052, 74HC4052, MC14052, MC4052...)
            Dual 4 channel multiplexer, (NLC 4SEQ) 
                                                       (Null A)
4053 -  (HEF4053, CD4053, MC14053, 74HC4053...
4060 -  Has a built in oscillator
4066 -  (HCF4066, CD4066, 74HC4066...)
            quad bilateral analog switch
4067 -  Single 16-Channel Multiplexer/Demultiplexer
4069 -  (CD4069, HEF4069, TC4069, HCF4069...)
4081 -  logic IC , Quad 2-input AND gate (NLC Divine Cmos)
4093 -  quad schmitt trigger/ NAND gates (can make 4 square wave oscillators.)
4094 -  8 stage serial shift register (8bitcipher)
4096 -  shift register
4051 -  multiplexer
4070 - XOR gate (NLC Bools)
                           (NLC Divine CMOS)
4071 - Quad two-input OR gate (four OR gates) (NLC Bools)
                                                                       (1050 mix sequencer)
4077 - Quad two-input XNOR gate (four XNOR gates), (NLC Bools)
                                                                                        (NLC Divine Cmos)
4081 - Quad two-input AND gate (four AND gates), (NLC Bools)
                          (1050 mix sequencer)
4514 - Four Bit Latch / 4-16 Line Decoder
4520 - Dual Binary up counter (NLC Divine Cmos)

In vintage synths the most popular of the 4000-series chips appear to be 
the analog bilateral switches (4016, 4066), the analog multiplexer/demultiplexers
4051, 4052,4053, 4067) and the 4046 phase-locked loop (PLL).  These allow the
routing of analog control signals. 
The 4046 PLL was used in such machines as the OSCar.

The CMOS synth was also made famous by Stanley Lunetta of Sacramento who passed away on March 3, 2016.
His Lunetta Synth inspired the DIY synthesizer community. He used mainly 4000 series CMOS chips.
Experimentation really is the whole point.  Learning what the different types of logic chips do, and making use of them in interesting ways.

Lots of these chips are logic gates:

Precautions
When DIYing with CMOS logic chips be careful of damage caused by static electricity. Ground yourself or use a static mat.Store them in conductive foam or foamed plactic wrapped in aluminium foil. Also,when building, you must connect any unused chip inputs to either VDD/VCC (V+) or VSS (ground). Inputs must not exceed VDD and never apply a input signal to an unpowered CMOS circuit.
-----------------------------------------------

Analog Multiplexer/Switches

406 - (DG 406) multiplexer (NLC 32:1)
412 - (DG 412) - analog switch (plague of Demons)
                                               (router) 

 
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Useful links:
+ Msmodular
+ Introduction to Lunetta
+ NLC
+ Fun with Sea Moss
+ Strangeness & Calm
+ Wikipedia CMOS
+ List of 4000 series ICs
+ List of 7400 series ICs
+ Electromusic - circuits inspired by Stanley Lunetta
+ HackaDay - Logic Noise

To be continued


Friday, 18 August 2017

Serge WAD and the Reticon SAD1040

I did some testing of a WAD (Wilson Analog Delay) last week.
It's an amazing effects unit quite unlike anything I own.

A post shared by jono (@dj_jondent) on
These are videos recorded on Instagram.

A post shared by jono (@dj_jondent) on
The sound is cleaner than my Buchla 288v ... though I like that for other reasons.

The WAD is so hard to find these days due to the rarity of its components.
.. those SAD1024 chips.

The SAD1024 is a dual 512 stage bucket brigade analog delay chip
It has 2 independent delay sections.  (1024 stages total.)
The Bucket Brigade consists of a series of capacitors that pass the analog signal
like a line of people carrying buckets of water to put out a fire.
The analog signal in each capacitor is forwarded to the next stage using transistors that act a switches.
The rate is determined by an external clock. When the audio shifts from one end of the delay to the other, the shifting and clocking functions delay the audio.


Bucket-Brigade delays have lots of problems. The most common of these issues is "clock noise",
which occurs due to the clocking function used to shift the audio through the BBD stages.
Cleaning up the clock noise is sometimes done by filtering or by using a zero-balance mixer and a dual-phase clock. 
It's difficult to say what portion of the WAD's magic is due to the SAD1024 but for the record 
these also use it:

- Ace-Tone EH-50 Delay
- A/DA Flanger *
- A/DA - HARMONY  Synthesizer
- Anderton Flanger
-  BEL ELECTRONICS  Delay/Flanger BA-40
- Boss Flanger BF-1
- Dynacord DC 300 e
- DOD Flanger 640.... 1979
- EHX EH-5100, EH7500 (Memory Man), EH-7811
- EHX Electric Mistress V1 (Flanger) (EH-5200-1-A). 1976
- EHX Electric Mistress V2 (EH5200-1-A) Flanger/Filter/Matrix (1976)
- EHX Electric Mistress V3 (EH5200-1-A-2) Flanger/Filter/Matrix (1978) 
- EHX Electric Mistress V4 (EH5200-1-B/C)) Flanger/Filter/Matrix (1979)
- EHX Electric Mistress V5 (EH5100-D) Flanger/Filter/Matrix (1980)
- EHX Electric Mistress V6 (EH5101) Flanger/Filter/Matrix (1981)  
- EHX Deluxe Electric Mistress V1,V2,V3. EH-1318 (1978), EH-5150-B,C & D (1979, 1981)***
          (V3 was black & Green)
- EHX Deluxe Memory Man (4 knob)....?? **
- EHX Memory Man Solid State Delay
- EHX Memory Man Echo/Chorus (non stereo)
- EHX Memory Man DeLuxe (EH-7550)
- EHX Echo Flanger (EH-7700)
- EHX Slapback Echo (EH-4700)
- EHX Stereo Slapback Echo
- EHX Small Clone (not all) EH4600 ****
- EHX Clone Theory (w/Edge switch)
- EHX polychorus

- KORG  some keyboards (The Trident's onboard analog flanger used the SAD 1040)
- IBANEZ  Flanger FL-305, FL-303
- LUPINE  Systems SAD1024 Delay
- MAXSON  MP-DL201 Flanger
- MONTGOMERY APPLIANCES  77 Flanger (ADA Flanger Clone)
- MXR flanger - M-117
- MXR Pitch-Shift Doubler
- Mutron flanger
- PAiA fhlanger
- Pearl F-604 - Flanger Analog Delay Effect (FADE).
- Roland - some guitar pedals
- ROLAND VP-330 (Vocoder Plus)
- Ross Flanger (Stereo delay R-80)
- Sovtek Electric Mistress (prototype)
- Tel-Ray Morley Chorus - Flanger CFL
- Vox 1902 Flanger (1981)
------------------------------------------------------------

*The first version of the A/DA Flanger used the Reticon SAD1024A (June 1977)                                        Bucket Brigade device, but the circuit was revised in May of ‘78 to use the Panasonic MN3010 chip.
This version remained in production until 1981. A/DA reissued the flanger in the mid-nineties. The new circuit also used the panasonic MN3010 BBD and had a built-in AC power cord. The production didn’t last long though. Today A/DA has resurrected the flanger and reviews are favourable.  ADA PBF Flanger (and ADA REISSUE FLANGER) use a pair of low voltage MN3204 BBDs.

Ive read that the very early c1977 SAD1024 A/DA flangers were powered by an 18VDC wall wart. (I have seen pics of some with 12VDC wall warts too... so who knows ???).
The later Panasonic MN3010 BBD chip version had an internal power supply (AC cord is permanently attached). Apparently the two versions sound very different.

**Possibly as early as 1976 Memory Man (3 & 4 knobs) pedals (eg: EH-7500 models) used three SAD1024 chips and  a CD4047 clock. Some of the later 1978 four knob EHX Memory Mans used Panasonic MN3005 chips.
The Memory Man line switched to the MN3005 chips perhaps around 1978, judging by the dates on the factory schematics for EH-7810 and EH-7850.**

***From what i can find on the net it seems that from 1999 on the Deluxe Electric Mistress had to be redesigned because its main integrated circuit, the Reticon SAD1024 BBD was no longer in production. These were V4 & V5. They used the RD5106 which is also now out of production.***

**** Its all very very confusing. This is the info I have compiled so far:
From 1979 to early 1981, EH used either the MN3007 delay chip or the RETICON SAD1024.
The sonic differences are subtle. The SAD1024 has been described as more “watery” sounding, adding a slight “boost” to the signal, while the MN3007 allows higher levels and less noise without signal clipping. The most sought after unit is the 1024 one, mostly because this was the version used by Nirvana’s Kurt Cobain on “Nevermind” and the “MTV Unplugged” sessions.
The vintage units have a clear and smaller (3mm) LED versus the red and larger (5mm) LED in the reissues. Also, the originals don’t have a dash mark (-) separating the words FULL and CHORUS.
The reissues have FULL-CHORUS (with the dash) written on it.

****

There are probably more pedals/synths that use the SAD chip. Please contact me if you know of any.


Ebay has a few of these chips but who knows the quality. Or you could "borrow" them from existing pedals though I think that's sad (no pun intended).

An alternative chip could be the MN3007. Its also a bucket brigade IC.
It is used by Boss in the DM-1 & CE-2. Also in the EMX Memory Man & Small Clone
the AD-999 by Maxon & the Analog Delay by MXR.

------------------------------
More on BBD chips
Back in the day there were 3 main manufacturers of BBD chips:
Reticon, Panasonic/Matsushita, and Philips.

Reticon (Sunnyvale California) produced the SAD 1024 under licence from Philips.(SAD = Sampled Analog Delay). Reticon stopped making these in the early 80's so if you are trying to repair or clone a WAD you will need to pay astronomical prices for NOS replacements.
Reticon also produced a single 512 stage IC (SAD512).

Panasonic/Matsushita (Japan) produced the MN30xx  and MN32xx series.
They stopped producing these in the nineties but clones abound.
Belling (Shangai) made copies of Matsushita’s MN3208 and MN3207 with the designation BL3208 and BL3207.
Coolaudio started producing clones of the MN3207, MN3208, and MN3205.
Xvive Audio began making replicas of Matsushita’s MN3005.
Visual Sound recommissioned production of MN3102/MN3207 in 2009.

The MN 30XX chips are earlier generation chips in comparison to the 32xx series.

The MN3001 appeared in November 1974.  The MN3001 is a dual 512 stage BBD, like the SAD1024.
The MN3002 is a single 512 stage IC featured in the 1975 Roland Jazz Chorus and the 1976 Boss CE-1.


The MN320xx are lower voltage and debately noisier than the 30xx series.

Philips were the inventors of BBD chips.
The BBD was invented in 1969 by F.L.J. Sangster and K. Teer at Philips Research Laboratories in Eindhoven, Netherlands. The most common version made by Philips was a 512-stage BBD named the
TDA 1022.
Around 1972. electronic keyboards such as the Dutch Eminent 310 String Synthesizer and Freeman String Symphonizer were the first to employ this new technology. Arguably, the secret to their sound lay with BBD technology. The most famous use of a 310 was by Jean-Michel Jarre on his albums Oxygene and Equinox.

The EC 280 Electronic Echo used eight Philips TDA 1022 BBDs.

--------------------
The number of stages effects the delay times.
The SAD1024 is a dual 512 stage bucket brigade analog delay chip  (1024 stages total.)
It has 2 independent delay sections. To get longer delays, both stages are cascaded together. The output of the first stage is fed into the input of the second stage and clocked through both stages at the same rate. 
In general, 128, 256 & 512 are used for shorter delays. 512 stages are really good for chorus and flanging effects.
1024, 2048 & 4096 are used in longer delay devices.

Doepfer make the Eurorack A-188 module which come in many flavours:

  • A-188-1X with 128 stages BBD (MN3006/MN3206), available only as long as quantities of MN3006/MN3206 last
  • A-188-1Y with 256 stages BBD (MN3009/MN3209), available only as long as quantities of MN3009/MN3209 last  geringer Bestand / low stock !
  • A-188-1A with 512 stages BBD (MN3004/MN3204), available only as long as quantities of MN3004/MN3204 last  geringer Bestand / low stock !
  • A-188-1B with 1024 stages BBD (MN3007/MN3207/BL3207), standard version, no delivery limitations 
  • A-188-1C with 2048 stages BBD (MN3008/MN3208/BL3208), standard version, no delivery limitations 
  • A-188-1D with 4096 stages BBD (MN3005/MN3205), available only as long as quantities of MN3005/MN3205 last
  They use Panasonic chips.

Another quite popular synth that uses the Panasonic MN3009 is the Roland Juno 106 & 60.
They use these for the chorus.
The 172 delay module in the Roland System 100m uses a single MN 3004 chip.
According to the net, the delay times are short...0 to 7ms.

---------------------------
Links:
- EGRES
- muffs1
- Ken Stone - CGS208
-  Ralf Metzger - All about The Electric Mistress
- SS30m - Roland 172 delay , etc 

Barcelona - Tribute.


I'm so saddened to hear about the recent terrorist attacks.
It's been over a decade since I visited this beautiful city and the recent news brought back such fond memories.
These pics are a tribute to the people of Catalonia. I need to return soon.








travel postcards: