Saturday, 19 August 2017

CMOS - useful chips for DIY Lunetta Synths

Over the past few years of building the odd Synth module I've come across the 4000 series of CMOS (Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor) chips time and again.
I am an analog addict but I must say that the digital 4000 series is very versatile.

In this post I'm mainly referring to the CMOS family CD4XXXX. They are typically four or five digits long but always start with a "4". There are many equivalent chips  in the 74CXXXX and 74HCXXX family but these are trickier to use as their power supply range is more restricted (2V to 6V). In comparison The CMOS 4XXXX has a much wider range (+3 to +15V).

It's hard to keep track of what each chip is capable of so I've decided to start a list.
I've added links to any NLC modules I've built that use CMOS logic.
(I've also added a few other CMOS chips that don't belong in the 4000 range, but are still useful)
I hope this list will help others in the DIY community as it grows over the coming years.

40106 - hex schmitt trigger inverters.
             This can make 6 square/pulse wave oscillators
40174 - (CD40174, 74LS174, HCF40174, HEF40174)
40193 - Binary Up/Down Counter
4001 -  Quad two-input NOR gate (four NOR gates), (NLC Bools)
                                                                                   (NLC Divine Cmos)
4006 -  shift register
4007 - (CD4007, HCF4007, HEF4007, MC14007...)
4009 -  Hex inverter (six NOT gates),
4011 -  (CD4011, HEF4011, HCF4011, MC14011...)
            Quad two-input NAND gate (four NAND gates), (NLC Bools)
                                                                                     (NLC Divine Cmos)
4013 -  Dual Flip-Flop (MXR Delay pedal), (Ibanez FL-303 flanger pedal), (MXR Chorus Pedal)
            Divide & Conquer
4015 -  shift register
4016 -  (74HC4016, CD4016, HCF4016, HEF4016,TC4016... ) analog bilateral switch
4017 - decade counter (Squid axon),
                                  (1050 mix sequencer)
                                  Baby 10 sequencer.(The 4017 has 10 decoded outputs)
                                  ARSEq Sequencer/EG
4024 -  shift register- Seven stage ripple carry binary counter (Null A).
            Divide & Conquer
4029 -  4 stage counter-binary/decade (NLC 4SEQ) 
                                                        (NLC 32:1) 
                                                           (Null A), 
                                                        Bindubba sequencer 
4030 - Quad two-input XOR gate (four XOR gates), (NLC Bools)
                                                                                 (NLC Divine Cmos)
4040 -  divider/ripple counter/Binary counter
4042 -  Quad D-Latch
4046 -  (CD4046, 74HC4046, MC14046, HCF4046...)
            PLL (Phase Locked Loop), built in VCO,  (NLC Vactrol Pill),
                                                                             Giant Bono 
4051 -  (CD4051, 74HC4051, HCF4051...)
            Eight channel multiplexer
4052 -  (HEF4052, CD4052, 74HC4052, MC14052, MC4052...)
            Dual 4 channel multiplexer, (NLC 4SEQ) 
                                                       (Null A)
                                                      Bindubba sequencer 
4053 -  (HEF4053, CD4053, MC14053, 74HC4053...
4060 -  Has a built in oscillator
4066 -  (HCF4066, CD4066, 74HC4066...)
            quad bilateral analog switch
4067 -  Single 16-Channel Multiplexer/Demultiplexer
4069 -  (CD4069, HEF4069, TC4069, HCF4069...)... WASP filter
4070 - XOR gate (NLC Bools)
                           (NLC Divine CMOS)
                           Divide & Conquer  

4071 - Quad two-input OR gate (four OR gates) (NLC Bools)
                                                                       (1050 mix sequencer)
4077 - Quad two-input XNOR gate (four XNOR gates), (NLC Bools)
                                                                                        (NLC Divine Cmos)
4081 -  Quad two-input AND gate (four AND gates) - (NLC Divine Cmos, Bindubba sequencer)
                                                                                 (NLC Bools)
                                                                                (1050 mix sequencer)
4093 -  quad schmitt trigger/ NAND gates (can make 4 square wave oscillators.)
4094 -  8 stage serial shift register (8bitcipher)
4096 -  shift register

4514 - Four Bit Latch / 4-16 Line Decoder
4520 - Dual Binary up counter (NLC Divine Cmos)

In vintage synths the most popular of the 4000-series chips appear to be 
the analog bilateral switches (4016, 4066), the analog multiplexer/demultiplexers
4051, 4052,4053, 4067) and the 4046 phase-locked loop (PLL).  These allow the
routing of analog control signals. 
The 4046 PLL was used in such machines as the OSCar.

The CMOS synth was also made famous by Stanley Lunetta of Sacramento who passed away on March 3, 2016.
His Lunetta Synth inspired the DIY synthesizer community. He used mainly 4000 series CMOS chips.
Experimentation really is the whole point.  Learning what the different types of logic chips do, and making use of them in interesting ways.

Lots of these chips are logic gates:

When DIYing with CMOS logic chips be careful of damage caused by static electricity. Ground yourself or use a static mat.Store them in conductive foam or foamed plactic wrapped in aluminium foil. Also,when building, you must connect any unused chip inputs to either VDD/VCC (V+) or VSS (ground). Inputs must not exceed VDD and never apply a input signal to an unpowered CMOS circuit.

Analog Multiplexer/Switches

406 - (DG 406) multiplexer (NLC 32:1)
412 - (DG 412) - analog switch (plague of Demons)


Useful links:
+ Msmodular
+ Introduction to Lunetta
+ Fun with Sea Moss
+ Strangeness & Calm
+ Wikipedia CMOS
+ List of 4000 series ICs
+ List of 7400 series ICs
+ Electromusic - circuits inspired by Stanley Lunetta
+ HackaDay - Logic Noise

To be continued

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