Saturday, 19 August 2017

CMOS - useful chips for DIY Lunetta Synths

Over the past few years of building the odd Synth module I've come across the 4000 series of CMOS (Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor) chips time and again.
I am an analog addict but I must say that the digital 4000 series is very versatile.

In this post I'm mainly referring to the CMOS family CD4XXXX. They are typically four or five digits long but always start with a "4".

There are many equivalent chips in the TTL 74XX and 74HCXXX family but these are trickier to use as their power supply range is more restricted (2V to 6V). (Eg: the 74HC4066 was a replacement for the 4066 with slightly different electrical characteristics). In comparison The CMOS 4XXXX has a much wider range (+3 to +15V). Sometimes, the 4000-series has "borrowed" from the 7400 series - such as the CD40193 and CD40161 being pin-for-pin functional replacements for 74C193 and 74C161. 


It's hard to keep track of what each chip is capable of so I've decided to start a list.
I've added links to any NLC modules I've built that use CMOS logic.
(I've also added a few other CMOS chips that don't belong in the 4000 range, but are still useful)
I hope this list will help others in the DIY community as it grows over the coming years.
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A single CMOS input /output is refered to as a Logic Gate.
CMOS works with digital logic... it outputs zeros & ones & the output waveshape is always square.
(It doesn't matter what the waveshape that you put into it).
Logic gates are the basic building blocks of any logic circuit. By using combinations of these three basic gates, the AND gate, the NOT gate and OR gate, we can construct quite complex circuits.

AND Gate
(It's the complement of the OR gate)

An example is the CD4081. This chip has four AND gates.
A HIGH output (1) results only if all the inputs are HIGH (1).
If none or not all inputs are HIGH, a LOW output results.
In another sense, the function of AND effectively finds the minimum between two binary digits, just as the complementary OR function finds the max.

NOT Gate 
Also called the inverter. Examples are CD4069/CD4049).
Its inverts the output, or more specifically, the output is 180 degress out of phase with the input.

OR Gate 
(It's the complement of the AND gate)

 (eg CD4071) A HIGH output (1) results if one or both the inputs to the gate are HIGH (1). If neither input is high, a LOW output (0) results.
In another sense, the function of OR effectively finds the maximum between two binary digits, just as the complementary AND function finds the minimum.


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40106 - hex schmitt trigger inverters.
             This can make 6 square/pulse wave oscillators
40174 - (CD40174, 74LS174, HCF40174, HEF40174)
40193 - Binary Up/Down Counter
4001 -  Quad two-input NOR gate (four NOR gates), (NLC Bools)
                                                                                   (NLC Divine Cmos), CellF Voice
                                                                                   LZX Castle 101 quad gate
4006 -  shift register
4007 - (CD4007, HCF4007, HEF4007, MC14007...)
4009 -  Hex inverter (six NOT gates),
4011 -  (CD4011, HEF4011, HCF4011, MC14011...)
            Quad two-input NAND gate (four NAND gates), (NLC Bools)
                                                                                     (NLC Divine Cmos)
                                                                                     LZX Castle 101 quad gate
4013 -  Dual Flip-Flop (MXR Delay pedal), (Ibanez FL-303 flanger pedal), (MXR Chorus Pedal)
            Divide & Conquer
4015 -  shift register. (LZX Castle 110 shift register video module)
4016 -  (74HC4016, CD4016, HCF4016, HEF4016,TC4016... ) analog bilateral switch
4017 - decade counter (Squid axon),
                                  (1050 mix sequencer)
                                  Baby 10 sequencer.(The 4017 has 10 decoded outputs)
                                  ARSEq Sequencer/EG
4020 - 14-bit binary Ripple Counter
4022 - Divide-by-8 counter/divider
4024 -  shift register- Seven stage ripple carry binary counter (Null A).
            Divide & Conquer
4029 -  4 stage counter-binary/decade (NLC 4SEQ) 
                                                        (NLC 32:1) 
                                                           (Null A), 
                                                        Bindubba sequencer 
4030 - Quad two-input XOR gate (four XOR gates), (NLC Bools), (NLC Divine Cmos)
74HC4040 - 12-bit binary Ripple Counter
4040 -  divider/ripple counter/Binary counter
4042 -  Quad D-Latch
4046 -  (CD4046, 74HC4046, MC14046, HCF4046...)
            PLL (Phase Locked Loop), built in VCO,  (NLC Vactrol Pill),
                                                                             RingPull
                                                                             Giant Bono 
                                                                            Wagernumb

4049 - INVERTER - also sometimes called a NOT gate or hex invertering buffer (it has 6 gates)                  Can be used in linear amplifiers.
4050 - Buffer (mostly used for interfacing to TLL logic).
4051 -  (CD4051, 74HC4051, HCF4051...)
            Eight channel multiplexer
4052 -  (HEF4052, CD4052, 74HC4052, MC14052, MC4052...)
            Dual 4 channel multiplexer, (NLC 4SEQ) 
                                                       (Null A)
                                                      Bindubba sequencer
                                                      Vectrex Video Game
4053 -  (HEF4053, CD4053, MC14053, 74HC4053...
74HC4060 - 14-bit binary Ripple Counter
4060 -  14-bit binary Ripple Counter. Has a built in oscillator
4066 -  (HCF4066, CD4066, 74HC4066...)
            quad bilateral analog switch.
            CellF Voice
4067 -  Single 16-Channel Multiplexer/Demultiplexer
4068 - 8-input NAND/AND gate.
4069 -  (CD4069, HEF4069, TC4069, HCF4069...)... WASP filter
             INVERTER - also sometimes called a NOT gate or hex invertering buffer (it has 6 gates)                     Can be used in linear amplifiers.
4070 - XOR gate (four Exclusive OR gates) (NLC Bools)
                           (NLC Divine CMOS)
                           Divide & Conquer  
                           (LZX 101 quad gate) video synth 
           One of the inputs decides if the gate is inverting or non-inverting by tieing
           the input to either +V (non-inverting) or ground (inverting). I

4071 - Quad two-input OR gate (four OR gates) (NLC Bools)
                                                                       (1050 mix sequencer)
            With either or both inputs high, the output will be high.
            With both inputs low, the output will be low.
            Input A or Input B needs to be high for the output to be high...thus the "OR gate".
4077 - Quad two-input XNOR gate (four XNOR gates), (NLC Bools)
                                                                                        (NLC Divine Cmos)
4081 -  Quad two-input AND gate (four AND gates) - (NLC Divine Cmos, Bindubba sequencer)
                                                                                 (NLC Bools)
                                                                                (1050 mix sequencer)
           So this chip has four AND gates & each gate has two inputs.
           With either or both inputs low, the output will be low;
            with both inputs high, the output will be high. 
            Both input A and input B needs to be high for the output to be high, 
            hence the name "AND gate"
4093 -  quad schmitt trigger/ NAND gates (can make 4 square wave oscillators.)
4094 -  8 stage serial shift register (8bitcipher)
4096 -  shift register

4514 - Four Bit Latch / 4-16 Line Decoder
4520 - Dual Binary up counter (NLC Divine Cmos)

In vintage synths the most popular of the 4000-series chips appear to be 
the analog bilateral switches (4016, 4066), the analog multiplexer/demultiplexers
4051, 4052,4053, 4067) and the 4046 phase-locked loop (PLL).  These allow the
routing of analog control signals. 
The 4046 PLL was used in such machines as the OSCar.

The CMOS synth was also made famous by Stanley Lunetta of Sacramento who passed away on March 3, 2016.
His Lunetta Synth inspired the DIY synthesizer community. He used mainly 4000 series CMOS chips.
Experimentation really is the whole point.  Learning what the different types of logic chips do, and making use of them in interesting ways.

Lots of these chips are logic gates:

Precautions
When DIYing with CMOS logic chips be careful of damage caused by static electricity. Ground yourself or use a static mat.Store them in conductive foam or foamed plactic wrapped in aluminium foil. 

You must connect any unused chip inputs to either VDD/VCC (V+) or VSS (ground). All inputs must go somewhere, either directly or with resistor.
Inputs that goes off board should have a load resistor connected (1M resistor to ground).
This brings us to what are referred to as Pull-up Resistors and Pull-down Resistors.

Inputs must not exceed VDD and never apply a input signal to an unpowered CMOS circuit.

Pullup & Pulldown resistors  

These are used a lot in CMOS circuits.
They define the default state of the input (whether or not the switch is open, closed or there is nothing connected to it). 
For example, any spare gates can be tied together or connected to a fixed voltage, using a high value resistor (10k -100K) to either the Vcc voltage, (pull-up) or via a low value resistor to 0V (GND), known as pull-down. Unused inputs should never be left floating about.


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Analog Multiplexer/Switches

406 - (DG 406) multiplexer (NLC 32:1)
412 - (DG 412) - analog switch (plague of Demons)
                                               (router) 

 
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Useful links:
+ Msmodular
+ Introduction to Lunetta
+ NLC
+ Fun with Sea Moss
+ Strangeness & Calm
+ Wikipedia CMOS
+ List of 4000 series ICs
+ List of 7400 series ICs
+ TTL - transistor-transistor logic
+ Electromusic - circuits inspired by Stanley Lunetta
+ HackaDay - Logic Noise
+ James Schidlowsky - Handmade electronics
+ Nicolas Collins 

To be continued


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